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Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Now Is the Time for Summer Pruning

Q. Back in January you had an article about Apricot trees and you mentioned cutting back excessively long growth over 18-24 inches when it is growing. I planted an apricot a couple of years ago and this year it is growing like crazy with many branches now exceeding 18 inches and still growing.  Would you recommend continuing to cut back excessively long growth and throughout the summer if necessary?

A. When fruit trees are growing like crazy some of it can be part of their genetics and some can be caused by management. Some fruit trees are naturally more vigorous than others. Fruit trees are also affected by the type of rootstock they are grafted to. For example, the variety Katy apricot is much more vigorous than the variety Gold Kist when grown on on the same rootstock. Gold Kist is more restrained in its growth and tends to stay smaller.
Young peach requiring summer pruning
Growth is also be affected by management. Applying too much fertilizer or watering too often can produce excessive growth. Growth is good. Excessive growth is not because it has to be pruned out and that's wasted energy by you and by the tree.

Summer pruning is a dwarfing technique used to help restrain the growth of fruit trees. Fruit trees have stored energy held in reserve through the winter. Trees "invest" this stored energy into new growth in the spring. Vigorous trees invest more of this energy into growth than trees with restrained growth.
Young fruit tree requiring summer pruning because of excessive new growth. Summer pruning only removes some of the new growth, not older wood.
Summer pruning in our climate is done during the months of late March, April and perhaps the beginning of May depending on the weather and the type of tree and its growth. When summer pruning, new growth that is undesirable is removed from the trees after the tree has made its "investment" in this growth. This robs the tree of stored energy that might be used for excessive growth.
Fruit tree restrained after summer pruning
There are two types of pruning cuts. One is total removal of a new shoot (thinning cuts) and the other is cutting excessively long growth, shorter (heading cuts). Total removal of a new shoot opens the canopy of the tree and reduces excessive shading. Cutting long growth shorter creates three new shoots from a single cut. Three shoots created by one cut increases shade created by the canopy.
Upright, vertical growth is usually not desirable in fruit trees. This kind of growth tends to produce lots of leaves and twigs and very little fruit. This type of growth should be totally removed with thinning cuts.
This second type of cut, heading cut, also encourages the development of short shoots along the cut branch. These short shoots begin to flower and produce fruit often times during the next season. These short shoots are called "fruiting spurs". Cutting back excessively long growth to about 18 inches restrains the tree and improves fruit production closer to the trunk.
Heading cuts are made anywhere along a branch just above a bud that is pointed outward.
The result of a heading cut (near my thumb) is seen next year when bud below the cut begin to grow. One cut can result in three to five new shoots. I refer to heading cuts sometimes as "thickening cuts".
What to do? Totally remove (thinning cut) new, long shoots that are 100% vertical. These shoots are sometimes called "water sprouts". Shoots that grow vigorously and vertically upward are not good fruit producers. This type of growth normally produces all shoots and leaves, no flowers.
Undesirable succulent new growth can be pulled from the tree and does not need to be cut if it is done early enough. Pulling new growth from trees, rather than cutting, reduces the amount of regrowth.
New shoots that grow vertically downward are also poor fruit producers. These should be removed as well (thinning cut). The best fruit producers are shoots that grow upward at a 45° angle; halfway between vertical and horizontal. Remove these shoots only if they are crowding or crossing other shoots. If they are excessively long (24 inches or longer) cut them back along the shoot leaving behind about 12 to 18 inches of new growth. This single cut of an excessively long shoot restrains the size of the tree and helps produce side shoots or spurs that will eventually flower and fruit.

Sweet Cherries Are Hit and Miss in the Las Vegas Valley

Q. Cherries are on my mind.  I know you have spoken of them before but I guess I did not have the ears to hear then.  Can you suggest the right kind?  Do I need two different varieties and if so, can I plant right now safely? 
A. Cherries are hit and miss in this desert climate. In some places they produce very well and other places they set nearly no fruit at all. I think this has more to do with the setting than anything else. 
Poor fruit set in Bing cherry growing in the desert. Growing suite cherries can be hit or miss. Good fruit set of cherries happens but usually in backyard locations where lawns or a pool is nearby.
My personal observation is they set better in backyards where they are close to a lawn or a pool. I think this higher humidity may have something to do with it. They don't seem to be particularly sensitive to chilling hours or the number of hours it gets cold during the winter. They flower very nicely every year but the problem is setting fruit from these flowers.

I have not tried them but I am speculating that the so-called low chill varieties of cherries may have the same problems as traditional cherries such as Bing, Lambert and the like. You will get better fruit set with two cherries in your yard that help pollinate each other rather than relying on neighbors.

There are low chill varieties of sweet cherries that have been released and promoted for our climate such as Minnie Royal and Royal Lee which pollinate each other. I have no experience with these low chill varieties so I don't know how they will perform here. I tell people that all sweet cherries are hit and miss as I mentioned above.

You can plant from container now without too many problems. Have the hole pre-dug, the soil amended with compost and plant it from the container into a wet planting hole as quickly as possible and have the water running with a hose at the same time you are putting soil back around the roots. This will help minimize transplant shock and setbacks.

Get Bigger Grapes. Give Grapes a Pinch Now!

The concept is simple. I tell this to those who come to my classes and demonstrations. There are two families; family A and family B. Both families each earn $30,000 a year. Family A has two children. Family B has 12 children. Which family can provide more food for their children? Hint: welfare is not involved.
Italia, a seeded table grape that can be used for wine as well
When plants have fewer "children" to nourish, each child as the potential for becoming bigger, healthier and stronger. Thinning a tree or vine to remove fruit is a form of pruning. Fruit is removed when they are very young so that the remaining fruit has enough time to get larger. The earlier you get it done while the berries are small, the greater the amount of food that will be transferred to the remaining berries.

Grapes are thinned in two ways; small bunches are removed and the remaining bunches are "pruned" so that the berries that remain get larger. This is how to do it for table grapes.

After the grapes of flower you will see the development of very tiny grapes at each of the flowers. Space the bunches of grapes so that they are about 12 inches apart along the vine. Look for bunches that are smaller or have not filled out well. Prune these inferior bunches from the vine with a pruning shears and compost them. Cut them off so that you do not leave any stub behind.

Secondly, look at the remaining bunches of grapes. These bunches grow in a triangular shape with a lot more berries at the top of the triangle, closest to the vine, and fewer of them at the bottom of the triangle near the point. Divide the triangle along its length into three equal segments.

Remove the bottom segment, or about one third of the bunch, by cutting with a pruning shears or pinching with your thumbnail.

Yes it's painful… To you...Not to them. There. You have reduced the size of this family so that the vine can provide more food and make the remaining berries larger.

Myrtle Makes a Good Desert Landscape Plant

Rain in the Desert Can Be A Bad Thing

You are probably thinking this rainy weather was a good thing. It is and it isn’t. Let’s talk about some of the problems this rain has created for us now and over the next month.
            Expect an explosion of disease problems. Look for diseases on tomatoes, Asian pears, some European pairs like Bartlett and even some apples.
Tomatoes sprawling on the ground frequently have a higher percentage of fruit that rot than those kept off the ground. One popular way around this is the use of tomato cages.
'Early Girl' tomato crowded in a tomato cage
Tomato cages keep tomato vines from laying on the ground and suspend fruit in the air where they are less likely to rot. The bad thing about tomato cages is they force all growth into a dense, upright tangled mess.
The center of this tangled mess, if left to grow without human intervention, is dark with very poor air movement. Tomato diseases love this environment particularly if it is wet and humid. Because of poor air movement and shade, the center of these plants tend to remain humid and dark.
The beginning of Early Blight disease on tomato
Plant diseases love moisture, shady areas and older leaves, particularly if the plants have not been fed. If tomato plants growing in cages are wet from overhead sprays or extended periods of rainy weather, diseases can be a big problem.
Tomato plants grown in cages should have suckers removed from leaf crotches as they are growing. This thins the plant and the remaining leaves get more sunlight and better air circulation. Tomato fungicides should be applied before things get really bad.

            I am predicting there will be an explosion of fireblight, a bacterial disease, on Asian pears, many European pairs and some apples. Asian pears are the most susceptible but look for it on European pairs like Bartlett and even some apples. You might see it also on pyracantha and ornamental pear.
Fireblight in May
            This virulent disease enters susceptible trees through the flowers, blown around during wet, rainy weather. Pears and apples were flowering when the first of these recent rains occurred. That was the clue that something was likely to occur this year.
Blackening and hook commonly seen with a fireblight infection
It takes time for fireblight to incubate inside the flowers and spread so signs of this disease will begin over the next couple of weeks. The first sign is the blackening and death of flowers and fruit and “hooking” of new growth. This disease spreads very rapidly and, if not controlled early, kills branches and possibly later, the entire tree.
Advanced stage of a fireblight infection
When symptoms are first seen use a sanitized pruning shears to remove the infected area 10 to 12 inches below where it is seen. Always sanitize pruning shears with alcohol, bleach or Pine-Sol after each cut. Bleach rusts steel so oil the shears soon after using it. Bag the infected plant parts and put them immediately in the trash. Do not compost it.

It is normal to see mushrooms coming from wood mulch and newly planted lawns after rains. Mushrooms are a close relative to fungal diseases and are not inherently bad. Mushrooms are signs that decomposers are at work and feeding off of decaying wood. They are generally not safe to eat so knock them over with a rake when you see them and don’t worry that these indicate plant disease.
Mushrooms popping up in wood mulch after rain

Master Food Preserver Classes Offered in Moapa

Are you or someone you know i interested in becoming a Certified Master Preserver? If so, the Cooperative Extension in Northeast Clark County is offering a two-day Master Preserver Certification class May 20-21, 2016 from 9:00am-5:00pm. The cost of this informative and useful class is $150 and the fee includes instruction, supplies AND certification.
The class will cover all methods of food preservation from water bath canning/pressure canning to dehydration/freezing. (The class will also include preserving fruits, veggies, jams/jellies, pie fillings, pickling/relishes and more!)
We are excited to bring Carolyn Washburn, our Master Preserver instructor, from Utah State University and here is a link with more class information: http://extension.usu.edu/utah/home_family_food/master_food_preservers[extension.usu.edu]

Please let us know if you would like to sign up or have any questions at 702-397-2604 ex.0 or walkerd@unce.unr.edu

Monday, April 18, 2016

Best Fertilizer for Lantana?

Q. What is the best fertilizer to use on Lantana?  I have yellow and purple and the yellow just never seems to keep the flowers long in the summertime, they come and go and do no not look very vibrant.  Is there such a thing a mild fertilizer to use?

A. Lantana are not particularly fussy about fertilizers but all plants benefit from improved soil “health”. Fertilizers only replenish some of the minerals in the soil that plant roots remove. Focusing your efforts on improved soil “health” make plants more lush and vibrant.
Lantana flowers
            Plants growing in desert soils covered in rock improve if organic materials are applied to the soil rather than only fertilizer. Ideally, organic materials should be mixed with the soil at the time of planting but these disappear in a couple of seasons and need to be replenished with surface applications on a regular basis.
Biosolid free compost
            The ideal organic application is 100% compost applied to the soil surface, not a soil mixture containing compost. Soil mixes commonly contain a large percentage of sand which adds volume to the landscape when applied. Compost on the other hand doesn’t add volume because it “dissolves” into the soil.
Pure compost, 100% compost, can be difficult to find in stores. However, 100% compost can be purchased from composting facilities such as A1 Organics or a compost supplier like Viragrow in North Las Vegas.
Lantana in bloom
Applying compost is simple. It is applied to a soil surface, or rock mulch, and simply watered in with a hose. Compost “dissolves” into the soil giving the plants nutrients and improves soil “health”. Improved soil health, along with the nutrients it contains, makes new growth darker green, with larger leaves, and larger, more vibrant flowers.

Sunflowers Can Be Critter Magnets

Q. After this last rain and gusty winds some sunflower leaves are scorched. The sunflowers are 3 feet tall, sown from seeds saved from last year. The leaf scorching runs between the veins but not on all the plants.  Is this normal after this kind of weather?

A. This had nothing to do with the weather. Look at the bottom of the leaves. Sunflowers are notorious bug traps. If this scorching is from bug damage, you will find lots of bugs feeding on the bottom side of the leaves.
Bottom leaves of sunflowers beginning to scorch showing signs of pest problems on the underside

Bug damage is noticed on the lowest leaves first and progresses up the plant. Usually insecticidal soap sprays applied to the bottom of the leaves kill these critters but will not repair the damage they created.
If the lower leaves turned yellow, it could be from not enough nitrogen fertilizer. If they are 3 feet tall, they have already removed a lot of nutrients from the soil to get that large. Feed them once a month with fertilizer or they will run out of food, the lower leaves turning yellow and scorching.
Checking on the undersides of the leaves we can see aphids beginning to colonize, perhaps placed there by ants moving them into virgin territory

Another possibility is irrigation or damage from salts. They go hand-in-hand since water washes salt from around the roots and pushes it deeper. Little plants only require small amounts of water. Big plants require more water so make sure they are getting enough water and it is applied often enough.

Improve the soil at the time of planting with compost, feed the plants regularly with a fertilizer, water them enough and check for bugs. Then they will be healthier.

Keep Grape Vines Away from Walls

Q. I was going to plant a grape vine directly in front of my cement block wall. I decided to check the internet to see how far away from the wall I should plant. The site said grapes should not be planted close to walls because the roots cause structural failure. Is there is a minimum distance from the wall to plant the grape?

A. Roots of grapes are not a big problem for walls, particularly when grown in the desert with drip irrigation. However, do not plant a grape vine immediately against the wall. Put them on a trellis at least 1 foot away from the wall. Place drip irrigation away from the wall to encourage plant roots to grow away from the wall as well.
Keep grapes away from walls for better production of fruit

Grapes need to be pruned and harvested. Planting directly against the wall makes these practices difficult. Generally speaking, table grapes grow more vigorously and are more aggressively than most wine grapes. Wine grapes might be a better choice for smaller areas and they are more versatile as a food.

Oleanders Struggling in Desert Soil

Q. We planted new oleanders a month ago and fertilized them with Epsom salts and gypsum. They have yellow leaves that are dropping already. What can we do to stop the yellowing of the leaves?

A. Oleander should be one of the easiest plants to grow in this climate and soils. Something is definitely wrong. Gypsum and Epsom salts are not complete fertilizers. They contain a lot of calcium and sulfur as well as some magnesium but nothing to encourage plant growth.
            Select a fertilizer that contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium such as 16–16–16 or some type of fertilizer for trees and shrubs.

You didn’t mention mixing compost with the soil when it was planted. I hope the soil was amended with organic matter like compost at the time of planting. This is extremely important for plants growing in our desert soils.
It is important to add compost with the soil at planting time

Make sure the planting hole is filling with water at planting time. This practice is not as important in soils found in wetter climates but can be an extremely important practice for our soils.

Add enough water at each irrigation to thoroughly wet the soil surrounding the plant roots to a depth deeper than the container. Build a donut or moat around the plant that can be filled with water. Irrigate with a hose, filling this moat, the first three weeks after planting.
Add water to the planting hole at the same time you are backfilling it with soil

Tomato Plants Don't Need Shade Cloth

Q. My tomatoes have blossoms all over. When should I cover it with shade cloth?

A. Tomatoes do fine without shade cloth. Be careful using shade cloth because too much shade stops plants like tomatoes from flowering and producing fruits. Shade cloth is best used for leafy vegetables and herbs. Shade decreases bitterness and improves tenderness of leaves.
This is 30% shade. Leafy green vegetables and herbs grown for their leaves will benefit from shade cloth when grown under intense sunlight in the desert

            Many people use shade cloth which produces too much shade. Never use shade cloth meant for people when growing vegetables. Shade cloth for vegetables and herbs should not produce more than 30 or 40% shade.

            Generally speaking, grow tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, squash, melons and other flowering vegetables without shade. Also include onions, garlic and potatoes on that list. Use shade cloth for lettuce, spinach, collards, basil, parsley and other leafy green types.

How to Judge How Much to Water a Lawn

Q. I am responsible for maintaining a bermudagrass lawn at a church where the foot traffic is pretty high. The lawn gets 25 minutes of water three days a week, all in one watering because the lawn is very flat. But it still looks thin in spots. Can you tell me if this is the right amount of water?

A. Water is tough to measure in minutes. It is usually measured in gallons or inches of applied water. Right now, March and April, lawns need about 1/4 inch of water per day. After four days, apply 1 inch of water.
This was how we measured how evenly water was applied to turfgrass on a golf course. There are hundreds of quart plastic containers placed on this grass. You can do the same on a much smaller scale with your home lawn. But you must have several cups to be accurate.

To translate 1 inch of water to minutes put several cans out in random places, measure how much water is applied in five minutes and then in 10 minutes. Translate the lowest amount caught in cans into minutes.
Another method is to water the lawn for 15 minutes. Take a long pointy device, like a long screwdriver or piece of 3/8 inch rebar, and shove it into the lawn in five different places. Measure how deep the water has penetrated. It gets harder to push when it is dry and pushes easily when it is wet.
A long screwdriver can be substituted for that piece of rebar

Run the irrigation long enough for water to penetrate to one foot. When the water penetrates to this depth, then this is the number of minutes to run the sprinklers. These minutes aren’t changed much throughout the year.
What is changed is how OFTEN the sprinklers come on. Three times a week seems quite often for bermudagrass this time of year. It should be about every three or four days between irrigations when watering a foot deep.
Applying enough water helps fill in bare spots. But what really causes bare spots to fill in quickly is enough water PLUS a nitrogen fertilizer. Apply ammonium sulfate, 21-0-0, to the lawn every 8 weeks. Use 3 to five pounds of this fertilizer for each 1000 square feet of lawn.

Apply it with a handheld spreader over the entire lawn and water it in. Apply it more heavily in bare areas. Mow it somewhere between 1/2 and 1 inch in height. Taller grass is more wear resistant.

Sunday, April 10, 2016

Swarms of Little Black Bugs Attack Plants

Q. A few days ago my rose bushes were swarmed with small black (iridescent) flying beetles and they've cleaned out most of my roses. They also wiped out my one strawberry plant.
Flea beetle ataxic grape leaves leaving holes

Flea beetles aren't very large but they are small, black and iridescent

If enough of them come through this is the kind of damage they can do in a short time

A. I have not seen them but flea beetles come to mind this time of year. They are small, black and iridescent. This is the time of year they are normally active as well again in the fall.
They normally come in large swarms devouring a lot of soft leaves including roses, strawberries, grapes to name a few.

In about two weeks they will be gone as quickly as they appeared. The plants will grow back. I would not recommend anything to spray but simply wait until they are gone then give the plants a deep watering and fertilizer so they recover quickly.

Spring Rain Can Bring Several Problems to Landscapes

The rain this past weekend may have brought some problems along with it, the same as it did last year after a rain like this. Problems might develop during the coming week or, with some plants, even extend into May or later.
Japanese euonymous with powdery mildew
Plants like roses may show signs of powdery mildew disease. This disease is aggravated by cool, wet weather, splashing rain, followed by warm weather. It appears as a white powdery dust on the leaves that can kill them. This disease is usually weak in our climate mostly because of our low humidity and cloudless days.
Rose with powdery mildew
Pull off a few leaves so air can circulate through the plants and allow them dry out naturally. Apply a preventive spray of a conventional fungicide for roses, sulfur dust or Neem oil. Lower humidity, air movement and sunlight in the coming days may clear up this problem without pesticides on some plants.
Fire blight in pear
            Another problem on European and Asian pear as well as some apples is fire blight. This disease is particularly virulent too many members of the Rose family such as many of our fruit trees.
If these trees were flowering during this rain it is possible this disease may show its ugly head toward the beginning of May. Look for jet black dieback on new growth, usually very close to the infected flowers.
Classic symptoms of fire blight in pear
Cut out these stems or branches 12 inches below the infection and sterilize pruning tools after each cut. Bag these infected plant parts and get them off of your property.
Pomegranate disease due to wet spring weather
            Pomegranates that are flowering may develop fruit with a black interior later in the season. This disease can be the result of wet weather when they are flowering. This disease may not appear on fruit until quite a bit later in the season. It does not spread beyond the fruit and the fruit is inedible.
Mushrooms popping up in wood mulch after rain

            Mushrooms frequently pop out of the ground after a rain like this. Nothing to worry about but knock them over with a rake and keep them away from your pets. They are feeding off of decaying wood or wood chips in the soil or on the soil surface. They are good guys.

How to Care for Lilacs in the Desert

Q. My lilacs have bloomed and the flowers are gone. Is now the time to prune or do nothing? How do you prune or care for the lilacs.
Lilac planted in rock mulch with brown scorched leaves
Shrub pruned with heading cuts close to the ground
A. Most people don't know that low-chill varieties of common lilac will grow here as well as the Persian lilacs. Plant them in plenty of sunlight but in places which avoid the hot afternoon sun. All lilacs must be planted in a composted soil with a wood chip mulch. Rock mulch will not work.
Low-chill varieties do not need as much low temperatures to produce flowers. Lilacs that are not low chill will not produce as many flowers in our warm winter climate. Some plants require long periods of time when temperatures are cold so that flowers will be produced the next year.
Persian lilac may be a better choice for our climate and in smaller yards than common lilac. Persian lilacs are smaller in stature than common lilac, with smaller flower clusters and a lower winter chill requirement.
Hopefully local nurseries and garden centers that sell lilacs for our climate are selecting low-chill types such as an old time favorite here called "Lavender Lady". I believe this, along with "Angel White" were the first low chill lilacs available that would grow in the desert Southwest. Many of these low-chill varieties are referred to as the “Descanso Hybrids”.
Lilacs are not desert plants so they require lots of compost mixed in the soil at the time of planting with the soil covered in wood chips that decay over time. They should not be in rock mulch.

A very nice article appeared in Sunset Magazine and you can read it here http://www.sunset.com/garden/flowers-plants/mild-climate-lilacs

As with any seasonal flowering shrub or tree the best time to prune them is soon after flowering. If pruned later than this, the flowers for next year may not be produced.
First, remove the dead flowers before they form seeds by cutting them off at the base. Next, if needed, cut back branches or stems.
To increase the number of flowers you should increase the number of new branches it produces. Use a "heading cut". This type of cut is made somewhere along the length of the branch, usually just above a leaf on the outside of the branch.
Heading cuts grow three or four new shoots for every one that is cut that is made. This is an excellent way to make a shrub denser with more flowers.
If the shrub is getting too large, remove one third of all the longest stems back to within a couple of inches above ground. New stems will grow from just below these cuts.
A radical way of pruning this plant is to totally cut it off just above the soil surface. With plenty of water and some fertilizer new shoots will grow from these very short stubs resulting in an all-new plant. This is pretty radical but if the plant is overgrown with lots of wood showing, this may be your only alternative.

Remember, after pruning give it plenty of water and fertilize it with an all-purpose fertilizer.

Bottlebrush Several Reasons for Yellowing

Q. Two out of my 3 bottle brush bushes look dry and yellowish. The first 2 years they were fine. Does it mean they are not watered enough?
Bottlebrush flowering

Bottlebrush after Winter cold damage
Bottlebrush with yellowing due to iron chlorosis
A. Many plants in general, including bottlebrush, can be damaged if watered either too often or not watered frequently enough. If you are going to error about watering, it is better to give plants too much water than water them too often. But I think the problems iron, not water.
Right now water plants like this once or maybe twice each week at the most. Yellowing of the leaves can also happen because of real low winter temperatures. Similarly, it can also happen if the soil is not improved or covered in rock mulch.
Bottlebrush don't like rock mulch at all and if they are planted in rock mulch they frequently turn yellow in 3 to 5 years. If they get yellow enough, the leaves begin to turn brown and scorch. This is what I think happened to your plants.
Purchase an iron fertilizer and apply it to the soil above the roots now and water it in. The best iron fertilizer contains the letters EDDHA on the label or in the ingredients. EDDHA iron chelate is an important for iron product to use in desert soils.
Iron applied to the soil will only improve the green color of new growth. The older leaves which are yellow can only be improved with an iron fertilizer solution sprayed on the leaves. Spray this solution in one week intervals until you get a dark green color.

If these are growing in rock mulch, buy good quality compost, not a soil mix, and spread it around each of the plants and water it in. Apply around one to one half cubic foot of compost to the base of these plants and water it in, even in rock mulch.

Thursday, April 7, 2016

Grapeleaf Skeletonizer Reported Flying Now in Las Vegas

A friend reported she saw the adult grapeleaf skeletonizer flying around her grapes in the Summerlin area of Las Vegas. You should begin looking for the adult which is a nearly black, unusual-looking moth near grapes.

Adult will lay eggs on the UNDERSIDES of leaves so you must look on the bottoms.

The young, larvae, are small "worms" that hatch from the eggs in about 7 to 10 days. This young worm stage is when they are most easy to control with sprays even insecticidal soaps.

Use sprays like Bt, Spinosad, insecticidal soap, .....Sevin, and general fruit tree insect sprays if you garden conventionally.

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