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Sunday, June 10, 2018

Help Us Look for Great Tree Pics!

We are currently writing a book that has been funded on desert water conservation in urban landscapes. We would like original pictures of native and desert adapted trees growing in southern Nevada. We will credit the owners with all that we use.

The pictures of trees we would like to have include:

Single-leaf pinion pine  Pinus monophylla
Western redbud             Cercis occidentalis NOT Eastern redbud  Cercis canadensis
Gambel oak                     Quercus gambelii
Netleaf hackberry          Celtis laevigata var. reticulata
Vitex or Monkspepper  Vitex agnus-castus
New Mexican Locust     Robinia neomexicana
Fragrant Ash                   Fraxinus cuspidata
Desert Willow                 Chilopsis linearis 
Joshua Tree                     Yucca brevifolia
Utah Juniper                   Juniperus osteosperma
Cliff Rose                         Purshia stansburiana
Catclaw acacia                Acacia greggii 
Screwbean Mesquite     Prosopis pubescens
Blue Palo Verde             Parkinsonia florida
Mojave Smoketree        Psorothamnus spinosus

Desert Willow                Chilopsis linearis
Sweet Acacia                  Acacia smallii
Foothills Palo Verde     Parkinsonia microphylla
Arizona Rosewood        Vauquelinia
New Mexico Olive         Foresteria neomexicana
Ironwood                        Olneya tesota
Lacebark Elm                Ulmus parvifolia
Chinese Pistache           Pistache chinensis
Holly Oak                       Quercus ilex
Southern Live Oak       Quercus virginiana
Texas Ebony                  Ebenopsis ebano


Tuesday, June 5, 2018

A Few Seats Left in my Landscape Design Class

The first Saturday morning class sold out. The second Saturday afternoon class is half full. 8 weeks long. You will finish the class with your own personalized landscape design. Cash for Grass program has increased the rebate for home landscaping to $3 per square foot. Only a few seats are left.

I want to sign up!

"The purpose of a landscape design is to enhance the lives of the people who live in it." I told this to my 600 students who have successfully created their own landscape design using this class since 1996. You will make your own landscape creation that meets your needs, not someone elses. Your design will reduce water and energy using the minioasis conept (hydrozoning) and plant placement that reduces pricey electric bills. You only need my tools and knowledge to make it happen!
This class gives you the right tools and knowledge through a series of eight weekly classes. These weekly classes teach you how to create your own design that meets your needs and wants. Not the needs of a contractor, designer or architect.
During eight sequential weeks you will create, on paper and using my simple weekly steps, a design that can be tradtional, with a desert focus, a permaculture "food forest", or one that simply helps you relax. This class has a 95% success rate when my steps are followed and has graduated landscape award winners over the years! Class size is limited.

Class size is limited.

Tuesday, May 22, 2018

Early Summer: Too Late to Plant?

Q. I was going to plant some Cypress trees a month ago but was called away on a family matter.
Is it too late to plant cypress trees and a few fruit trees this time of year or should i hold off till next year?

A. Now is not the best time to plant in our hot desert climate. It should be done in early spring or even better, mid fall when temperatures are beginning to cool off.
            It should be okay to plant now but make sure to dig the hole, and amend the soil going into it, before planting. Water the hole thoroughly and transfer the plant into the hole as quickly as possible to minimize transplant shock. As you are adding amended soil back into the hole, make sure everything in the hole is wet.
            Put a basin around the plant and fill it for three consecutive days before turning it over to the irrigation system.

Little known fact: The most important roots during planting, feeder roots, are small and delicate and can die within 10 to 15 seconds when exposed to the outside air. The more that die, the more "shock" the plant has and recover time is longer.

Every Landscape Architect Should Know This about Desert Soils

Desert soils have characteristics which make them unique among all the other types of soils. These characteristics encompass its chemistry, structure, biological activity and consequently how plants respond after planting. Desert soils are stable under a desert climate. Once manipulated they are no longer the same and impact management decisions long after landscapes have been installed.
Surface of typical sandy loam soil in the eastern Mojave Desert of Las Vegas, Nevada, with no organics in it

Rainfall and Desert Soils

Desert soils are characterized by the desert climate where they were formed and the rocks or geology that decomposed to form them. The dominant climate feature of deserts that impact soils the most is rainfall. Not total rainfall, but effective rainfall.
What’s the difference? Total rainfall is the amount of water that falls from the sky. This is measured using rain gauges. We hear it on the news. “Total rainfall yesterday was one quarter of an inch.” But that is not effective rainfall.
Effective rainfall is the amount of rain that actually enters the soil, stays in storage and supports plant growth. This can be far less than total rainfall. If total rainfall comes down slowly then a higher percentage is “effective”. If rain falls in a torrent, much of it runs off the surface and therefore a much smaller percentage is “effective”.
For deserts in general I have heard the magic number “40%” tossed around to convert total to effective rainfall. Personally, that sounds high to me for the Mojave Desert because the soils are much different than other deserts in North America. The primary reason they are different? The amount of plant material present. Why is there a different amount of plant material? Rainfall. Give the Mojave Desert more rainfall and the soils change.

Amount of Rainfall Dictates Number, Size and Type of Plants

The amount of rainfall dictates the size, number and the type of plants found in deserts. For example, compare the size, quantity and type of plants growing in the “lush” Sonoran Desert (with an average of ten plus inches of rainfall) versus the more barren Mojave Desert (four plus inches of rainfall). Most parts of the Sonoran Desert receives 150% or more water than the Mojave. More rainfall supports a greater number of plants and these plants tend to be larger.
Eastern Mojave Desert near Las Vegas, Nevada
By adding more water to desert soils through irrigation, the size, number and type of plants will or can be increased… artificially. Little else needs to be done to the soil than add water IF plants which originate from deserts are used. Let’s call these “desert plants”.

Desert Plants Better "Tolerate" Desert Soils

This doesn’t mean that desert plants don’t appreciate soil improvement but desert plants are better suited in “tolerating” the unimproved soil conditions of a raw desert soil. When propagating prickly pear cactus (nopal cactus) from pads in the Sonoran Desert of Mexico it is a common practice to amend the desert soil with manure at the time of planting. In a demonstration of growing these cacti from pads in the Mojave Desert with and without soil amendments I have witnessed a substantial improvement in growth when compost is added to the soil rather than applied to the surface after planting.

Desert Soils Change When Irrigated

When “effective rainfall” is increased artificially, desert soils change chemically, biologically and physically. Soils that were relatively unchanged for thousands of years, stabilized at around 2 inches of effective rainfall, now receive 50, 60 even 90 inches of effective rainfall. It’s silly to think nothing will change. As the saying goes, “Somethin’s gotta give.”
Unless a footer is constructed well, desert soils "settle" when irrigated as they change
Changes to the soil occur rapidly as a result of this much “effective rainfall”. Minerals in the soil that were stable, like gypsum or limestone, begin to solubilize quickly. Chemical changes occur. The pH of the soil begins to drop as plants grow and plant roots pump out carbon dioxide into the soil which dissolves in water to produce carbonic acid.
Roots of plants constantly die and regenerate providing food for microorganisms. As these microorganisms begin to colonize these “enriched” soils, they pump more acids into the soil. Changes in soil pH might be faster if a unit change was linear. Changes in pH are not linear. They are logarithmic. A change of one pH unit is similar to a one unit change in seismic activity on the Richter scale. A one-unit change equals a factor of 10.

Little Rainfall = High Salts

Desert soils commonly have an abundance of salts because of low rainfall. Salts are removed from soils by flushing them with water. Salinity of a soil drops as elevated amounts of “effective rainfall” wash these salts past the root zone of plants.
Salts move from the soil in the irrigation water as this water dissolves salts, wicks to new locations and evaporates

Artificial Desert Rainforest

Just as the “effective rainfall” of an irrigated urban landscape is not natural, the number and size of landscape plants installed in them is not “natural” or sustainable without this irrigation. Other “inputs” are needed to sustain this “artificial desert rainforest”. The type of inputs needed are dictated by the type of plants selected for a desert landscape. One of my favorite sayings is, “The further our landscapes drift from a true desert environment, the more time, energy and money is needed to sustain them.”

Mass Planting and Irrigation Create Fertilizer Demands

We know there are 16 or 17 nutrients that plants absolutely need to stay alive. Some of these like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur are needed in large amounts. Others, considered minor elements, are needed in much smaller amounts. If the solubilized minerals in the soil don’t release nutrients fast enough to keep plants healthy, then additional fertilizers must be supplied to make up the difference.
Even though a soil can be rich in nutrients, plant demand for some nutrients may exceed the soils ability to supply them or supply them in the proper form. Some examples are the extra calcium needed by intensively grown turfgrass on sand based greens, calcium deficiency of apples and pears grown on soils full of lime (calcium) or iron deficiency induced by a high pH in soils with an abundance of iron.

Add Organics to Desert Soils

Desert soils typically have low levels of organic matter. Organic matter in soils result from the death and decomposition of life (plants, animals and other organisms) that lives in it or above it. Climates that have more rainfall support more life. Soils influenced by these climates consequently have more organic matter in them than soils which have evolved under a desert climate.
Climates that have little rainfall support less life. Since our hot deserts have little rainfall, native or raw desert soils are low in organic matter. The raw, untouched soil of the Mojave Desert contains less than 1% organic matter.

More Water = More Organics

Desert soils that evolved with irrigated agriculture contain an abundance of organic matter compared to the raw soils of the Mojave Desert. Levels of organic matter in “farmed” desert soils can reach 4 to 5%, a level approaching the rich grassland prairies of Nebraska and Kansas. Why? Because of the artificially applied “effective rainfall” used to grow crops. Water is life. Water applied to desert soils evoke change.
Building organic matter in soils takes time. Organic matter in soils builds rapidly in the hot, wet tropics. In the grassland prairies, at 20 to 30 inches per year, it can take decades. Since organic matter never increases in desert soils without irrigation it must be added “artificially” when it is needed.

Desert Landscapes: Are they Really?

So-called “desert landscapes” no longer consist of “desert plants”. Nurseries and landscapers sell landscapes that look good with no regard for a plant’s origin. Nondesert photinia and mockorange are planted on the same valve and grown alongside Baja Fairy Duster or Arizona Rosewood and mulched with rock. In three to five years, the organic matter used at the time of planting decomposes and the soil “mineralizes” (loses its organic matter). The soils collapse and lose their porosity and ability to drain. Soil pH begins to drift upward. Biological activity declines. The non-desert Photinia and Mockorange begin yellowing and scorch while the more tolerant desert plants continue growing and appear healthy.

More Plants = More Landscape Inputs

The primary reason for these types of landscape failures is the combination non-desert plants with desert plants and managing this landscape as if it were a “desert landscape”.
I prefer the concept promoted by Dr. Warren Jones when he was with the University of Arizona – Mini Oasis. This type of desert landscape design grouped plants with similar needs together. Plants that grew well under rock mulch were grouped together and watered and managed similarly. Higher water use plants, many times non-desert plants, that benefited from higher levels of soil organic matter and wood chip mulch were grouped together. This concentrated plants which required more time, energy and money in one location, usually close to where people congregated.

 “The further our landscapes drift from a true desert environment, the more time, energy and money is needed to sustain them.”

Grubs in a Lawn or Not?

Q. We have had our lawn nearly 20 years without any problems until this year. It is developing brown spots in the lawn that we think might be grubs. We applied a grub killer we bought from a local nursery and the brown patches are continuing to grow. But now we think maybe the problem is not due to grubs.

A. After nearly 20 years I would think that your lawn is a mixture of several types of grasses. Unless you are extremely diligent in taking care of your lawn, I would guess that you have a mixture of grasses including older tall fescue and common Bermudagrass. 90% of the problems on lawns in the hot desert are related to irrigation. The next most common reason for brown spots to occur in lawns is from disease. Insects like white grubs is not all that common here on tall fescue and bermudagrass. But it can happen.

Make sure this is not an irrigation problem

Turn on your irrigation system and watch the sprinklers. They should pop up out of the ground perfectly straight and not tilted in any direction. The water should spray evenly from the nozzle in all directions. After you run a normal irrigation cycle, use a long screwdriver to judge whether the soil is wet in the brown areas.

Brown spots caused by grubs

Information you will find on the Internet about damage caused by grubs comes from cooler parts of the country where Kentucky bluegrass is the common lawn. We seldom grow that here. Our grasses are primarily tall fescue and Bermudagrass. When tall fescue gets damaged by grubs, it doesn't lift up like a carpet. 

That information is wrong for us. If grubs are causing damage to a tall fescue lawn in our hot, desert climate, individual grass plants will pull up easily at the edge of the damaged area. Pull on green grass In several places right on the edge between the damaged area and a healthy lawn. If green grass pulls up easily from these spots then your lawn has a good chance of having grubs. Any of the grub control chemicals should stop it if you follow the directions exactly. Scott's Grub-ex granular is a good product as well is the Bayer product you mention. If you go in this direction, use just one of them.

Disease

If irrigation and grubs are not the problem, then it is likely a disease problem by default. Disease problems run their course and then they are over when the weather changes. If this problem repeats every year, consider applying a fungicide as soon as you see a problem beginning to develop. Fungicides are preventive.

Aeration

You should consider aerating the lawn if it hasn't been done for a while. This helps to open up the soil for better water movement to the roots. It can help to prevent disease problems. You can aerate the lawn anytime but the best time is in the spring months before it starts to get hot.

Dethatching or Vertical Mowing

Consider removing dead grass from the lawn if the lawn feels "spongy" when you walk across it. Removing this dead grass requires a power rake and should be done in mid fall or very early spring to give the lawn a chance to recover and grow a little bit before winter or hot weather.

Importing Disease Problems

Some lawn diseases can be carried into your lawn from other lawns. Improve the general health of your lawn by using a good quality lawn fertilizer or applying a thin layer of compost to the lawn during the spring or fall.

Best Planting Soil for Bamboo


Q. I have a few questions I’m hoping you can answer. In a couple weeks, I’ll be planting a tropical clumping bamboo in 80ft of planters. I’ve read a lot about the best soil and all research indicates the plant prefers sandy loam on top of peaty soil. From my novice experience, I’m thinking this means l will first create a layer a soil with plenty of organic matter, and then top it with sandy loam.

Do you sell these two things? Also, I believe I’ll need a compost to mix in the loam as I’m planting the bamboo.

I’ve heard nothing but amazing things about your tomato lady soil from a good friend of mine, and hope you will be able to help me have a green thumb!


A. You can create this soil layering if you want and we have products to do it but growing a clumping bamboo is not so difficult. Using our Garden Soil Mix as a backfill for your bamboo will work just as well and less expensive.

The biggest worry with clumping bamboos are their tolerance to freezing temperatures. Most of these types of bamboos are sensitive to freezing temperatures. With some mulch covering the soil during the winter they will easily regrow from the base if these temperatures occur.
Tomato Lady Soil Mix can be purchased in bulk or in bags. 

If it were me I would save your money and use either Garden Soil Mix or Tomato Lady Soil Mix which has more added ingredients than the Garden Soil Mix.

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Making Compost in Trash Cans is Slow


Q. I’m composting in plastic trash cans with holes. It’s taking a very long time to make compost despite adding carbon to my grass clippings and kitchen waste. I water and turn it every few days. What am I doing wrong? 

A. There could be several reasons why. 

Large Volumes Perform Better

Perhaps the volume of compost is too small. If the amount of compost is too small, it will never produce enough heat on its own. If the air temperature is cold and the compost pile small, the composting process will be very slow.

Wind

            Maybe it’s too windy. Composting is difficult in areas where there is significant wind or too much sun. Compost develops better in shady areas of the yard without wind.

Nitrogen

            The compost ingredients might not be high enough in nitrogen. Compost ingredients are divided into two categories; “brown” ingredients which are loaded with carbon and “green” ingredients which are loaded with nitrogen. Compost should have significant amounts of “green” ingredients or use animal manure.
Too Dry or 
        The compost may be too dry or too wet. Compost needs to be moist but not sopping wet. Compost is like a living organism; it needs air to “breathe” and moisture.
            Microorganisms are needed in the mix. I reserve a small amount of compost from the previous mix to act as a “starter” for the new mix. Or I will put in a couple of pounds of garden soil just for the microorganisms.

Strawberry Success in Mojave Desert Soil and Climate


Q. How well do strawberries grow in our Las Vegas climate? When is the best time to plant and fertilize them? Any other tips?

A. Strawberries will grow and produce fruit in our Las Vegas climate. Its not the ideal climate but they will grow and produce fruit. The best tips I can give is to plant them in the right location, at the right time of year with the right type of soil amendments, a.k.a. compost.
Strawberry produced in the Easter Mojave Desert of Las Vegas
            They grow best in full morning sun but given some shade during mid to late afternoons. They need about 6 to 8 hours of sunlight, the same as most vegetables. This means the east side of buildings and walls are best. Do not plant them in areas exposed to late afternoon sun because they do not handle the heat and intense sunlight well.

Which strawberry is best?

            Use ever bearing types of strawberries that produce through most of the season rather than the so-called “main crop” strawberries that come on all at once.
            The best fruit is produced during the spring and fall months when it is cooler. Many of the common ever bearing types like Quinault, Chandler and Ozark Beauty produce well here.

When to plant?

            Plant them any time in February or March when you see them available but don’t wait for temperatures to get hot for planting. Some people prefer fall planting but they are harder to find. Actually, the best time to plant is in the fall if you can find them or get young plants or “runners” from friends and neighbors.

Prepare the soil

            Before planting, make sure the compost content of the soil is adequate because strawberries like rich soils. Soils need compost mixed with it to a depth of 8 to 10 inches deep. Use a 1 to 2 inch layer of compost mixed into the soil.
            Planting depth is critical on strawberries. Make sure the soil drains water easily otherwise they will get root rot and die during the heat.

Plant how far apart?

            Plant 12 inches apart. New plants from runners. Remove them or peg or secure them into open areas between plants. When a strawberry patch becomes too crowded, the old plants should be removed or the area replanted with young plants. Crowded plants do not produce fruit or flower.
            Just like most vegetables, fertilize them lightly and frequently with your favorite tomato or rose fertilizer, about every 6 to 8 weeks. Yes, I said to tomato or rose fertilizer because they need the same nutrients as roses and tomatoes.
            When temperatures get warm, cover the soil surface with mulch. Straw is frequently recommended but I like to use horse bedding rather than straw. Horse bedding is usually made from pine shavings and they decompose in the soil quickly compared to straw.
            Strawberries do very well with drip irrigation and light shade cloth (30 to 40% shade) during the summer months or protection from late afternoon sun.