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Friday, December 30, 2016

Most Frequently Asked Question in 2016 About Fig Trees

            The most frequently asked question asked in 2016 concerned fig trees. Readers wanted to know why their fig trees did not produce good fruit. Either the fruit dropped from the tree when they were small or the fruit clung to the tree and never became large, but remained small, hard and dry.
If not given enough water the fruit will stay small, hard and dry

            There are hundreds of local fig trees that produced fruit consistently for 20 plus years in our Las Vegas Valley. In most cases, these problems are a human management problem, not the fault of the tree or the climate.
If not enough water reaches the fruit they are like any other fruit, the fruit remains small. In this case hard and dry as well and inedible.

            Fruits of fig trees are “multiple fruits”, similar in basic structure to fruit of pineapple and mulberry. Multiple fruits have dozens of flowers produced in a cluster at the end of a fleshy stem. Each flower produces fruit which expand, growing into each other, as they get larger. These type of growth produces a single, large fruit composed of dozens of smaller fruits.
Fig fruit are "multiple fruits" like pineapple or mulberry that have been turned "inside out" with the soft single fruits on the inside and the "core" on the outside

            Fig fruits are strange. When picturing fig fruits, think of a pineapple turned “inside out”, miniaturized, with “fleshy moist fruits” on the inside and a more durable “core” on the outside. Pretty cool adaptation for dry, harsh climates.
            Figs originally came from drier parts of Asia, transported to the Middle East, perhaps over 10,000 years ago. Growing figs by humans predates wheat. Once transported and grown in deserts, they could no longer survive and produce fruit without additional water. The tree would survive and grow but could not support a crop of fruit without additional water. They needed irrigation to be productive.
            Fast-forward to the Mojave Desert and the planting of fig trees. Fig trees do not need much water to survive year after year. But like any other fruit tree, the tree needs additional water to support a crop of figs. As the tree gets larger, it needs more and more water to support this larger tree plus a crop of figs.
Cacti and figs are not a good mix in a desert landscape. The figs need lots of water for fruit production while the cacti don't.

            If your fig fruits are not a good quality it is most likely not enough water. If the tree is allowed to get big, and they will, add more drip emitters or enlarge the water basin around the tree. Put a four-inch layer of wood chips around the base. Or make them smaller.

Fig trees like this 15 year old fig can take some hard pruning to keep its size small.
            Fig trees can be pruned without mercy. They will recover from a stump if they must. Keeping the tree smaller requires less water for irrigation. Prune them smaller in December and January but keep some of the growth from 2016 if you want an early crop of fruit.

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Young Tree With Curved Trunk: Stake It?

Q. I planted a 24 inch boxed "Ped Push" Chinese pistache. After it was in the ground I removed the nursery planting stake. Now the trunk has a curve in it. Will properly re-staking help straighten the trunk?

A. The tree requires staking but not because the trunk is not straight. This will correct itself, on its own, over time. The tree requires continued staking for other reasons. Unfortunately, the production nursery that grew this tree did a bad job. The retail nursery that bought this tree got it at a good price. They are both at fault because they passed these problems on to you and they knew better!
            Looking at the pictures it seems like you did a very good job planting. I like the idea of the berms around the planted area to hold water and help push that water deep enough to water the entire roots.
            Remember that the berm should be about 4 inches high and the bottom of the burned area should be as flat as possible or all the water will build up on the low side resulting in roots that get plenty of water on the low side but not enough on the high side.
            To compensate for uneven soil, the berm must actually be taller than 4 inches; taller on the low side and shorter on the high side.
            I want to point out something to you about the tree and it will relate back to the staking. Look at the trunk of the tree. Notice that it does not have a lot of taper to the trunk. What I mean by taper, the trunk diameter does not change a lot along its entire length.
            This is the primary reason it does not stand on its own very well and will require staking now. In a strong wind, because of the lack of taper to the trunk, it is very possible this tree could snap in two. If the trunk had taper, it is much less likely to snap in a strong wind. This has to do with a lot of engineering mumbo-jumbo.
            The reason this tree does not have good trunk taper is because of how it was grown in the production nursery, not the retail nursery. But I will fault the retail nursery for buying these types of trees.
            They know better but they got a good deal on it and they pass the savings on to you, hopefully, and you probably bought it because it was inexpensive compared to others and you didn't know any different.
            Trees with a lack of taper on the trunk are grown too close together in the field, they are pruned incorrectly to encourage height at the expense of a lack of taper. Then they stake the trees because they cannot support their own canopy weight because of a lack of taper and this problem is passed on to you. And I challenge these nurseries to prove me wrong! I know I'm right and it makes me mad to see these kinds of production practices all because they want to make a buck.
            What can you do to correct this problem? You're going to have to stake this tree or it will snap in a strong wind. Guaranteed.
            Where to stake it is important. The bending and flexing of the trunk is important in the development of taper. If the tree is staked so the trunk cannot move back and forth, e.g. flexing and bending, this will contribute further to this problem.
            Secure the trunk to stakes so that the bottom of the trunk does not move. You do not want the bottom of the trunk going into the ground to move. You want the top of the tree to flex back and forth, but not the bottom.
            The trunk should be secured high enough so that it does not snap but the top of the tree can still move. This would be roughly about halfway up the trunk.
            Secondly, if any shoots grow from the trunk, do not prune them off!! Let them grow until they get about pencil diameter and then prune them off from the trunk leaving no stubs behind.
            New shoots should always be allowed to grow from the trunk because they help contribute to trunk taper. But remove them when they get older, always allowing the young ones to remain. Once the tree no longer requires staking, then keep the trunk clean of any new growth and remove it as soon as it appears.
            If you by any large trees, 15 gallon and above, in the future I hope you will consider trunk taper or the growth of side shoots along the trunk when purchasing a tree avoid nurseries that sell inferior plant quality.

Fruit Tree Pruning Classes 2017

I will be giving fruit tree pruning classes on both very young trees and established trees December and January in two locations every Fridays and Saturdays  January 6,7; January 13, 14; January 21, 22; and January 27, 28.

The two locations are:
Master Gardener (University) Orchard in North Las Vegas (Saturdays from 9 am to noon at 4734 Horse Drive, North Las Vegas 89084) and a Private Orchard (young trees only on Fridays at 1 PM downtown near MLK and Bonanza, Las Vegas). Those wishing to attend classes at the private orchard must be approved by sending an email to me at Xtremehorticulture@Gmail.com Attendance there is limited.

                                                      New Year 2017
Tuesday, Jan 3       UNCE                                   Mature fruit trees                  Master Gardeners
Friday,    Jan 6       Private Orchard                    Young fruit trees TBD           Volunteers
Saturday, Jan 7      Master Gardener Orchard      All mature fruit trees            General public

Friday, Jan 13        Private Orchard                     Young fruit trees TBD          Volunteers
Saturday, Jan 14    Master Gardener Orchard      All mature fruit trees            General public

Friday, Jan 21        Private Orchard                     Young fruit trees TBD          Volunteers
Saturday, Jan 22    Master Gardener Orchard      All mature fruit trees            General public

Friday, Jan 27        Private Orchard                     Young fruit trees TBD          Volunteers
Saturday, Jan 28    Master Gardener Orchard      All mature fruit trees            General public

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