Type your question here!

Friday, June 15, 2012

I Feel Really Bad for Sue and Her Grapes Frying After Dipel

Q. I e-mailed you awhile ago about issues with my grapes.  The GOOD news is, I had been pruning them totally wrong.  Following cane pruning instructions off of YouTube, in February I had more vines and grape clusters than since we moved in.  The bad news is that I was so excited about the grapes and worried about the pests (big black things and skeletonizers?) I followed your instructions and used Dipel Dust (just once) for prevention. 
Everything was fantastic until two weeks ago.  I had beautiful green grape leaves and so many clusters of grapes and on the turn of a dime…everything fried and I mean I hardly have a leaf and the clusters are practically burnt raisins now if anything.  I am so sad.  What did I do wrong do you think?  My intuition is telling me that the Dipel, like other pesticides I have tried, burn the leaves in the sun when it gets into the high 90’s?  Ugh, I am so bummed.  Anyhow, let me know what you think.  Thank you so much.

A. I rather doubt it was the Dipel if you applied according to the label. I usually use the liquid form of Dipel or Thuricide when I use it. Or I will use Spinosad instead which does the same thing but hits a few more insects including the skeletonizers.
This is Dipel DF or dry flowable and intended to be
mixed with water, not applied as a dust. Please read
the label before applying any pesticide.
Regardless you still would want to apply any pesticide even if it is organic like Dipel, in the early morning hours or late afternoon when it is no longer hot outside. Dipel powder is hard to distribute evenly over a grape vine while the liquid form is much easier to spray as is spinosad.
We use both products at the orchard and have had no problems with it when sprayed this time of year even around 8 or 9 am. I would next time though stick with a liquid product. It will give you better coverage over the leaf, both top and bottom, and is easier to apply. You should not be using the Dipel dust. Make sure you did not apply the Dipel DF as a dust. It is meant to be mixed in water and sprayed on.
Has anyone else had this problem with Dipel on grapes? I would love to know. Please check the label before using just in case.

Branches Dying in Elm Probably Not Dutch Elm Disease

Elm leaf beetle damage
Q. I have about 10 elm trees and my neighbor has 4 or 5. The branches seem like they just die. This pass year I lost 2 complete trees. I have been told there is a elm airborn disease. Can you please tell if that is true and what can I do about it?

A. There is no airborne disease of elms that you have to worry about. I think there is some confusion about Dutch Elm Disease and these trees. Siberian elms are not as susceptible to DED as some other elms which are not planted here anyway.

            Most of the elms here are Siberian elms, an inferior elm for landscape purposes. By the way, one of my favorite large trees is Chinese or Evergreen elm, a very nice tree that grows well in our climate with very few problems. 
            The usual disease problem we see on Siberian elm is a relatively harmless disease called slime flux. This is a bacterial disease which invades the wood and causes basically fermentation inside the trunk and large limbs. ooze from the bacteria is pushed out of the trunk or limbs and weeps down the side of the tree frequently from a pruning cut. If you get close to this ooze it will smell like fermentation or yeasty.

Wetwood or slime flux comig from
pruning cut

            This smell frequently attracts flies to the ooze. It is thought that the flies can pick up this bacterial contamination and spread it to new wounds on several trees besides Siberian elm. If we see this particular disease on the tree we usually ignore it since it really does not cause any long term ill effects.

            As far as insects go the worst problem is elm leaf beetle which skeletonizes the leaf. We usually ignore this too since it usually does not cause severe damage to the tree but does cause the leaves to become unsightly. These trees are tall/large with the leaves very high in the air so damage to them is usually ignored. It would be very costly to spray these trees to control this problem.
            The last problem we have had with Siberian elm is when older landscapes with these elms growing in lawns is converted to rock landscapes. Frequently there is not enough water applied for these trees to continue to be healthy and the branches die back due to lack of water and a poorly designed irrigation system for the elm to survive.

Bird Scaring Tactics to Keep Them Out of Your Fruit Trees

Q. Do you know where we can get the shiny silvery streamers for our fruit trees? The birds are upon us, (or them). We have the mesh covering, but would like to try something different.  If there's anything else you can suggest, we would appreciate that as well. Thanks for your help.
An electronic bird scaring device

A. We have tried streamers, tinsel, CD’s, DVD’s, (no VHS tapes yet), electronic bird scaring devices (which work for about two weeks when in constant use) and not much seems to work over the long run. Scaring devices MAY work over the short haul if discontinued after a couple of weeks and restarted again next season.
But if you expect something to keep birds out of fruit trees for months at a time you will be very disappointed. The best is netting the trees but the netting must be attached firmly to the ground with no entry points or the birds will find it. You would net the trees about two weeks before the fruit is ready. They don’t seem to bother fruit until they get to a certain stage of ripeness unless they are REAL hungry. That being said.. try….

Growing Garlic Ten Commandments

Morado Gigante garlic
Remember that in our climate, the desert Southwest, Mojave Desert, plant garlic in late September to the end of October. You can go later and we have and it usually turns out fine but this is the best time. Prepare the soil well with well-rotted organic matter (compost) and use lots of phosphorus (bone meal) in the bed. You can plant both hardneck and softneck varieties. Varieties to include might be Red Toche, Susanville, Polish White, Giant Morado, Tuscan, Red Janice, California Early, and many others. Most will work well here. - Extremehort

From http://www.thegarlicstore.com/
10. Always start with quality planting stock. Plant the biggest cloves – they yield the biggest bulbs (Eat the smaller ones!)

9. Planting in fall is best (though people have reported good luck with early spring planting). Full sun preferred.

7. Garlic likes friable soil, near neutral pH, with some composted manure. Incorporate a little bone meal at planting. And thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s bulbils.

6. Plant cloves about 5-6 inches apart and 2-3 inches deep.

5. Mulch your garlic (straw, alfalfa, leaves, etc.)

4. Keep soil moist (don’t let it dry out during the winter)

3. Garlic hates weeds.

2. Harvest when lower half of leaves have largely turned brown.

1. Be sure to cure your garlic by hanging it in a shady, well ventilated place for 2-3 weeks.

Fruitless Olive Not Always Fruitless

Q. Last fall we planted an olive tree that was certified to be non-fruit blooming. Now, it is full of olives! I just want it to grow. So, should we pluck the little olives off the tree so it can put its energy into growth?
Olives forming on "fruitless" olive

A. Yes, this can happen. Fruitless varieties like Swan Hill are grafted on to an olive rootstock. The top of the tree is fruitless but the bottom of the trunk below the location of the graft is not. Sometimes in the nursery the tops of some fruitless olives die back leaving the rootstock (a fruiting olive) that grows instead.

            The dead top (fruitless) is unknowingly pruned out or removed. The rootstock grows very rapidly and replaces the dead fruitless part of the plant. This has been documented in the nurseries.

            This can result in a fruiting olive tree. Sometimes the tags get mixed up in the nursery as well and a fruiting variety is labeled a fruitless variety by accident. I would not remove the olives. It would be far to laborious and time consuming and the small benefit you would get is not worth the effort. There are some great olive recipes that you could experiment with.

Mesquite Tree Can Bleed Profusely When Cut

Mesquite tree with sap running down
from a pruning cut
Q. This is about mesquite trees of which I have two in my front yard. Last fall I had both trees trimmed quite drastically by a recommended tree service. They are coming back very nicely except one limb is dripping what I thought was oil; a dark stain looking like oil or tar. 
            At first, I thought the gardeners had dripped oil over the rocks and over my lantern with their equipment.  Then I looked up!  I don’t know what to do about this; I clean up the area as best I can and within a week, it looks like it had never been cleaned. Is this something I should worry about, or should I just keep on cleaning?  Only one limb on one tree is doing this.

A. Mesquite trees can bleed quite profusely when they have been cut. This is nothing to worry about and it should stop by now.

            Out of curiosity you might just take your finger to this sap and smell it. If it has a strong yeasty smell and it attracts flies it's possible it could be a relatively minor disease problem called Wetwood or slime flux. I just mention this because it is more of a curiosity than anything else.

            There is really not much you can do about this disease and it should not have any long-lasting effects on the health of the plant. This is not true of this disease and a couple of others but mesquite it should be no problem. It is going to be unsightly.

            If the liquid persists, it is possible to drill a hole at the bottom of where it is leaking and    tap in a 2 or 3 inch tube into the hole so that the liquid runs down and out the tube, not down the side of the tree. Make sure all is sterile when puncturing or putting a hole or cut into plants.

Citrus Fruit Cocktail Tree A Good Idea?

Q. My husband bought a tree with each branch a different citrus fruit: lemon, lime and 2 different oranges. I have never heard all these fruits on 1 tree. What do you think?

A. The tree you bought is called a Cocktail Tree where they bud different types of citrus onto one rootstock . . It seems to be a great idea but rarely works out because on of the varieties inevitably becomes dominate and shunts the other varieties. Also, they rarely tell which variety of the type is used so it is a pig in a poke purchase.
 A trick that really works, especially if your space is limited is to buy two or three trees, one each of your favorite type  (orange, grapefruit, lime or whatever citrus you like) and then plant the individual plants all in the same hole . . They all stay on their own rootstock and the dominance issue is negated. And, you can pick your favorite type and variety of that type.
People have been successful using this technique for years. It might be a bit more expensive initially but this trick works and the Cocktail Trees have a poor track record.
I hope this helps . . Good luck.
Terry Mikel

How to Cook Up Your Mesquite Beans

Q. I have a young honey mesquite that is having its first beans.  I've heard they are edible.  If they are, are all varieties the same, and how does one serve one up?

A. The Mesquite pods have been used as a food by peoples and browse by animals forever . . .The beans are actually very small, about half the size of and similar in shape to a lentil . . The beans are not eaten; the pod matrix is the edible part . .

If you take the dried pods and put them in a blender and let 'er rip you will break down the pods and the hard seeds (covered in a papery shroud) will float to the top of the mix . . Remove the seeds to plant or toss and use the rest as a sweet, coarse flour . . I use it a lot in cornbread but it can be used in most bread recipes . . . The North American species have more pod matrix and flavor than the South American species . . The one glaring exception is the one South American species Prosopis nigra or Black Mesquite which has, by far the most delicious and plump pods . . They are rarely found in landscapes but I know where a few are and I can sneak  some pods from time to time . .Shhhhh, don't tell anyone . .

Don't worry if you see pinhead sized holes in the pods, not to worry that is just a little weevil that feeds on the seeds, the part you are not going to eat . .

There are many books and articles about Native American foods in the southwest that talk about Mesquite pods . . . . It might be fun to check out some of those references also . .
.Good luck and let us know how it works out for you and let us know what you made . . 
Terry Mikel

Monday, June 11, 2012

Leaf Munching on Grapes, Whiteflies, Leafhoppers

Q. My grapes leafs are gigantic this year after the big pruning; but something is taking big munching bites out of the leaves - I don't see any thorn worms?  Any ideas?

One of the hornworms as larva or caterpillar
A. It is probably hornworms this time of year. Put on a spray of Bt now or spinosad. Repeat it in about two weeks. Use spinosad if you had leafhoppers last year. They are tiny and they jump. That should keep them pretty clean.

Q. I enjoy your articles in the newspaper. Thank you for your insights into my garden. I have a five year old grapevine.  Each year I have an infestation of tiny white flying insects.  I have tried traditional sprays with no success. What are they, and how do I get rid of them?  BTW - The hummingbirds love them.  The birds will cause the insects to become airborne, then pluck them off in mid-air.
Leafhopper damage to grape leaf
A. It is possible that they are either leafhoppers or whiteflies. I have seen leafhoppers more often than whiteflies on grapes. However your description fits whiteflies better than leafhoppers since you said they fly and are white.

            Leafhoppers are usually darker in color, green or brown or a combination of both but jump into the air rather than fly. Both are hard to control but soap and water sprays are good when they are very young.
            It is getting late now as this should have been applied in late April or early May if using soapy water. You can also use insecticidal soap. It is in the right concentration and does not have potential problems as you might have with soaps or detergents that have skin conditioners or scents added.
Leafhopper damage cropped and enlarged upper surface
            Be sure to spray the undersides of the leaves which is where they are most likely found but go out and find where they are and direct the spray on the insects, not just on the plants. The insecticidal soaps have no residual so if they land back on the soapy surface of the leaf it will not harm them.

            The soapy water MUST come in contact with the insect or it will not work. If these are truly whiteflies then use a fruit spray that contains the words pyrethrums, permethrin, cypermethrin, pyrethroids, etc. you get the idea. It should have “ethr…” in words in the ingredients. There are lots of different kinds.

            If this is leafhoppers you can try applying spinosad this time of year but it is starting to get late for this application. It should have been done in May but try it.

Cleveland Sage a Great Choice for Beauty and Fragrance

Q. I am trying to identify this bush/plant. It is in a desert landscape. Poor picture (sorry) but the blooms are blue/purple and seem to grow out of the center of the bloom below. Each bloom is shaped like a pinwheel with small flowers around the edge. Each stem/stalk supports 4 or 5 of the pinwheels, each spaced evenly up the stem. Very interesting and pretty.
Cleveland sage picture submitted by reader

A. The picture is a bit fuzzy which doesn't help with my old eyes but I think what you have is Salvia clevelandii or Cleveland Sage, or Blue Sage. It gets its name from being named in the Cleveland National Forest which is east and north of San Diego.
            I really love the plant for its visual beauty but one extra is the wonderful fragrance of the foliage. Even on warm days with just the lightest of zephyrs the fragrance wafts all around.

Hawaiian Tomoto Plant with Yellow Leaves May Be For Many Reasons

Q. I have 4 Hawaiian tomato plants in containers, all producing tomatoes.  On one plant the leaves on lower branches are turning yellow.  The plant appears to be healthy having several flowers and small fruit forming. I fertilized all 4 plants 2 weeks ago with Miracle Gro and was planning to fertilize in 2 week intervals as suggested on product container.  What can be done to prevent the yellowing of leaves on the other 3 plants and resolve the present problem with the one plant in question?

A. There could be several things going on. My first reaction was a lack of nitrogen fertilizer until you told me you were using a fertilizer on a regular basis. When plants don’t get enough nitrogen fertilizer the older leaves can turn yellow and die.

            You can also look at how much new growth there is since nitrogen is also responsible for stem and leaf growth. If it is not growing and putting on new growth then this can also be an indicator of a lack of nitrogen.

            Watering too often and keeping the soil too moist can also cause yellowing of foliage. So if you have mulched the soil and watering frequently then this might also be a potential problem.
            Some soil amendments if they have not broken down completely can cause yellowing but this is usually compensated by using fertilizer high in nitrogen. Also poor grade composts can cause yellowing so try to avoid the very inexpensive composts and soil amendments. Good soil amendments are expensive unless you make your own.
            If the soil is native desert soil that has been amended with compost or soil amendments, salts can cause yellowing of leaves. There are lots of natural salts in desert soils, frequently at levels too high for most of our landscape and vegetable plants. If your soil is fairly new, it make take a couple of years of compost and growing to get it into good condition.
            Salts are removed by leaching or watering the soil with lots of water in and letting it drain over and over in repeating cycles. Salts dissolve easily in fresh water and the draining water carries dissolved salts from the soil to a depth below the roots of the plants. If you use composted native desert soils you should always leach the soil prior to planting.

            So look at your soil modifications, how you are watering and whether you have leached the soil or not. If after this you think there is still a problem you might consider replacing the soil.

Strawberry Weevils A Big Problem When Growing Strawberries

Readers strawberry plant with damage

Q. A friend of mine has recommended that I contact you regarding a problem I’ve got with a newly planted garden in my back yard.  These beetles are devouring my strawberries and I’m even seeing them on my other veggies in the same planting area.  I tried the water, soap, baking soda, cayenne pepper spray solution but it’s not seeming to make much of an impact, if any.  I really don’t want to use pesticides. 

A. What you have is most likely one of the vine weevils. Because it is on strawberries I would like to think it is the strawberry vine weevil but there are other vine weevils as well. Regardless of the name the problem and controls are similar. Difficult.
Vine weevil on readers plants, picture magnified and cropped
            Probably one of the more effective ways is going to sterilize the soil. This can be done without chemicals. This will require you to remove the plants from their home, wash them thoroughly and replant them in soil that has been sterilized through solar sterilization. This is a bad time of year to do this however. You could do this this fall.
            You will sterilize the soil by tilling or digging the soil so that it is loose to a depth of 12 inches. Water the soil. Place clear plastic over the top and seal the edges with soil and rocks so the wind does not blow it open.

            Leave it covered so that the soil "cooks" for two hot days. After two hot days you can uncover it, let it cool and plant again with clean plants. Use clean mulch that is free of critters as much as possible.

            There are baits you can buy but the bait must say it controls pill bugs and sow bugs , not just snails and slugs. The bed will get infested again and you will have to go through the same scenario to clean up the bed.

            There are some insecticides you could use but check the label and make sure they can be used on fruit and see how many days you have to wait before you pick the fruit after you apply it. this is called the "re-entry period" sometimes on the label.

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Watch Out for Deadly Fireblight on European Pear, Asian Pear and Quince

Frequently I see this problem pop up on fruit trees in May or June.
Readers pear tree
Q. I have a pear tree which is about 10 years old.  Up until this year, it has been pretty healthy.  This spring it got a disease. I am hoping you can identify it for me from these pictures and tell me what I can do to treat it so that it won’t be a problem in the future.
            I thought at first it might be fireblight but it is not with the new growth.  It seems to have attacked all the places where there would have been fruit. I have inserted pictures for you and hope that these are helpful. It is not receiving any overhead spray.  It is watered with a drip system.   

A. This is fire blight. This is a bacterial disease which is more rare than fungal diseases on plants. One way it is spread is through the flowers either by blowing wind during rainy weather or by pollinators such as honey bees.
            Flowers of apple and pear come from spurs which are short shoots on older wood. If the disease enters through the flower then it will spread through the older growth and into the new growth if it is present. It does not necessarily have to attack new growth.

Fireblight in pear
            It can be seen on older growth as well. On new growth if it is present it will show the textbook picture of shepherds hook which I posted on my blog. If new growth was not present then it will simply die back and demonstrate a blackened, scorched, fire appearance.
            This disease is extremely virulent and must remove as soon as possible from the tree and the growing area. Cut out the infected limb to 12 inches below the visible infection. Sterilize pruning instruments with a dilution of bleach and water both before and after the cut has been made.

            Put the cut limb into a plastic bag, tie the bag and immediately put it into the trash. Do not try to mulch or compost this infected limb. Oil your pruning tools after you disinfect them with bleach so they don’t rust.

Classic fireblight shepardshook and black
scorched fire symptoms
            Wash your hands after you have finished pruning. This disease is fairly rare here due to our isolation from orchards and low humidity. It attacks European pears like Bartlett, all Asian pears and Quince but does not damage Keifer pear. I hope this helps.

Summer Lawn Disease on Tall Fescue Right Around the Corner

Starting usually in late June and through the hottest months of July and August, tall fescue can experience the development of brown spots that can rapidly expand from six inches to more than a foot across. Summer patch, once known as Fusarium blight or Frog-eye, is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe poae.
Symptoms start to appear when warm summer weather begins. Brown patches emerge during the heat of the summer, often in conjunction with summer rains and higher humidity. In southern Nevada, outbreaks vary from lawns that are highly maintained to those that are poorly maintained. Symptoms are more pronounced on highly maintained turfgrass.
Infested sites seem to be prone to environmental stresses that arise from heavy thatch accumulation, mowing turfgrass too low, high nitrogen fertilizer schedules, light and frequent watering schedules, compacted soils and poor drainage. The disease can be spread by maintenance equipment and infected plant material. Even though drought seems to encourage its development, it is frequently found in wet locations.

Obviously any type of management that reduces turfgrass stress during the hot summer months will help to curtail development of this disease. Appropriate fertilizer applications, aeration, removal of thatch, deep watering, and mowing higher will go a long way in preventing this disease from occurring.

Chemical treatment is an option for summer patch control but the key is to start early. Appropriate systemic fungicides should be applied beginning when night temperatures remain above 70° F. Using the wrong fungicide or high nitrogen fertilizers may actually aggravate the problem.
The disease organism survives from one season to the next on diseased roots and stems from the previous year. The development of summer patch is highly dependent on the right environmental conditions. Elevated soil temperatures (75o to 85o F) and high soil moisture provide an environment where the disease is more virulent.
Disease starts as scattered light green patches 1 to 5 inches in diameter as pathogens attack the roots and crowns of susceptible plants. In the early stages, young roots may appear healthy, although dark brown hyphae may be present on these tissues when seen under magnification. Vascular discoloration and cortical rot occur as the disease progresses. Damage to roots, crown and stem by the disease restrict water uptake and plants begin to appear drought stressed.
By midsummer, plants with increasing levels of infection die due to heat and drought stress resulting from their damaged roots and stems. At this stage, roots and stems of plants showing dieback have a dark brown rot. Circular or crescent shaped patches of dead and dying plants are formed by the spread of the pathogen, root to root, from an initial infection site. Several of these patches can coalesce into a patchwork of dead grass in a serpentine pattern, scattered with clumps of healthy grass. 

Patches of dying plants create doughnut shaped depressions that can grow to two feet across and turn dull tan to reddish brown and give the affected area a pockmarked look. In some cases, an apparently healthy green patch of grass will be completely surrounded by a ring of dead grass creating a “frog-eye” appearance.

In advanced stages where large patches may appear entirely dead tufts of green grass frequently remain in the dead grass, remnants of the earlier “frog-eye”. Since the pathogen survives in infected root and crown tissues, the disease is likely to reappear next year in the same areas with increasing intensity.
New patches may be formed after the transport of contaminated roots or root debris from turf maintenance equipment such as power rakes, vertical mowers and aerators.

Preventive Management.
To minimize the risk of summer patch, it's helpful to minimize stress on the lawn. Primary stresses include excess thatch, inappropriate fertilizer or incorrect timing of fertilizer applications, high temperatures, low mowing heights, and soil pH extremes.
  • Always apply a balanced N-P-K fertilizer and don’t apply any fertilizer during the June-August stress period.
  • Fertilizers should be applied at half rates as needed. You don’t want the turfgrass underfertilized or overfertilized which may add to stress or increase susceptibility.
  • Avoid heavy early spring and summer applications of fertilizer high in nitrogen.
  • Develop a fall fertilization program supplemented with a half rate summer fertilization program.
  • Deep water prior to summer heat to encourage deeper root systems.
  • Seed heat tolerant perennial ryegrasses such as Palmer, Prelude and Brightstar.
  • Syringe (short applications of water) during the heat of midday during July and August.
  • Core aerate in early fall or mid spring.
  • Remove thatch by aeration, vertical mowing or power raking.
  • Increase mowing height to 3 inches during the hot summer months. Susceptibility to this disease increases as mowing height decreases.
  • Overseed with improved cultivars.
When summer patch is severe or when fungicides are not an option then the only remedy is fall overseeding or resodding after the disease has subsided. At this time there are no tall fescue cultivars that have been identified as resistant to summer patch.

Treatment with Chemicals.
Fungicides may be required for control if summer patch has been a problem in previous years. Apply treatment 3 to 4 weeks before symptoms are likely to occur in late spring when temperatures are in the 65° to 68°F range. Systemic fungicides such as Rubigan, Banner or Bayleton should be applied when night temperatures don’t fall below 70 F. Irrigate after application. Apply fungicide starting in June occur in late spring when temperatures are in the 65° to 68°F range. Systemic fungicides such as Rubigan, Banner or Bayleton should be applied when night temperatures don’t fall below 70 F. Irrigate after application. Apply fungicide starting in June.

If this is too difficult, look for a product that says it controls Fusarium blight or summer patch and follow the directions for application precisely. The label is the best source of information. It is NOT a bunch of bologna. They want it to work so you will buy it again and recommend it to others.

Remember, nearly all fungicides are PREVENTIVES, not curatives. Fungicides normally protect the plant from infections or further infections unless it states on the label that it has a curative rate.

Make Jelly From the Fruit of Your Ornamental Plum

This is cherry plum, not from the ornamental tree but the
same fruit sold as Delite cherry plum

Q. We have a flowering plum (supposedly ornamental) tree in our front yard.  This year it is covered with small walnut sized plums.  Are these edible?  I am envisioning plum jam if they are edible.

A. Yes they are! These plums are sour but great flavor so use lots of sugar and follow your favorite plum jelly or jam recipe. By the way, it can also be used to make wine or infused into vodka or grappa with sugar and let it stand for three to four months or longer. I was put to shame by one of our local winemakers who brought me some of his ornamental plum jam and another with his infused vodka.

Purple leaf (ornamental) plum
            Because the plums are so small wash and put them into a pot and add enough water to cover them. Boil them for 20 minutes or the skins pop. Mash with a potato masher. Continue to cook another 10 minutes. Let cool.

            Strain mashed fruit through cheesecloth or jelly bag. Add Sure Jell to filtered juice and extra water and bring back to a rolling boil, stirring all the time. Add butter and all the sugar and boil for one minute. Skim and pour into jelly jars.

 Ornamental Plum Jelly
4 c. plum juice
1 c. water
6 1/2 c. sugar
1 box Sure-jell
1 tsp. butter